RAZLIKE IZMEĐU ZAPOSLENIH I NEZAPOSLENIH U ZADOVOLJSTVU ŽIVOTOM, SUBJEKTIVNOJ SREĆI I LATENTNIM I MANIFESTNIM BENEFITIMA OD ZAPOSLENJA

Ivana Strizović, Aleksandar Mratinković

Apstrakt


Posao predstavlja jedan od najznačajnijih aspekata života osobe. On ne samo da predstavlja glavni izvor prihoda, već često definiše društvenu ulogu pojedinca, i predstavlja deo selfa. Iako su istraživači saglasni da zaposlenost ima značajan uticaj na blagostanje, u psihološkoj literaturi postoje podeljena mišljenja u vezi sa pitanjem koji element posla je značajniji za razumevanje ove povezanosti – manifestni (finansijska dobit) ili latentni (socijalni kontakti, ograniyacija vremena, socijalni status...). Prema Jahodinom modelu Latentne deprivacije naglašava se značaj latentnih benefita od zaposlenja. S druge strane, Frayerov Model ograničavanja delovanja manifestne benefite od zaposlenja smatra esencijalnim za blagostanje. U ovoj studiji želeli smo ispitati postoje li razlike između zaposlenih i nezaposlenih u Srbiji u pokazataljima blagostanja, kao što su subjektivna sreća i zadovoljstvo životom. Pored toga, interesovalo nas je postoje li razlike u izraženosti manifestnih i latentnih benefita od zaposlenja između zaposlenih i nezaposlenih, kao i šta više predviđa zadovoljstvo životom – manifestni ili latentni benefiti. U istraživanju je učestvovalo 237 ispitanika iz Srbije (146 tj. 61.6% zaposlenih). Za ispitivanje blagostanja primenjena je Skala zadovoljstva životom (Satisfaction With Life Scale – SWLS) i Skala subjektivne sreće (Subjective Happiness Scale – SHS), dok su mnifestne i latentne benefiti od zaposlenja merene Skalom latentnih i manifestnih benefita (The Latent and Manifest Benefits Scale – LAMB). Rezultati su ukazali na značajne razlike između zaposlenih i nezaposlenih u nivou zadovoljstva životom, ali ne i u nivou subjektivne sreće. Zaposleni su pokazivali veće zadovoljstvo životom u odnosu na nezaposlene. Takođe, dobijene su i značajne razlike u odnosu na finansijsku sigurnost, kao manifestne benefiti, i u odnosu na organizaciju vremena, kao latentne benefiti od zaposlenja. Pokazano je da zaposleni imaju veću materijalnu sigurnost i bolje strukturirano vreme u odnosu na nezaposlene. Hijerarhijskom regresionom analizom je pokazano da iako manifestna benefit tj. finansijska sigurnost, značajno doprinosi zadovoljstvu životom kako zaposlenih, tako i nezaposlenih, latentne benefiti takođe ostvaruju značajan efekat na zadovoljstvo životom. Na poduzorku zaposlenih pokazano je da je finansijska sigurnost najbolji prediktor zadovoljstva životom, a potom i socijalni kontakti i organizacija vremena, dok socijalni status ostvaruje negativan doprinos predikciji. U slučaju nezaposlenih, najbolji prediktor zadovoljstva životom su socijalni kontakti, pa potom finansijska sigurnost. Na osnovu rezultata možemo pretpostaviti da je, u našoj zemlji, za zadovoljstvo životom finansijska sigurnost važnija od latentnih benefita, barem u slučaju zaposlenih, dok su kod nezaposlenih važniji socijalni kontakti.

Ključne reči


zaposlenje, zadovoljstvo životom, subjektivna sreća, benefiti of posla

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19090/pp.2016.4.361-377

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