GENERACIJSKE RAZLIKE U SADRŽAJU PSIHOLOŠKOG UGOVORA I REAKCIJAMA NA NJEGOVO KRŠENJE U TRANZICIJSKOM KONTEKSTU: STUDIJA HRVATSKIH ZAPOSLENIKA

Mojra Dautović, Zvonimir Galić

Apstrakt


Nedavne promene političkog i ekonomskog sistema su u mnogočemu promenile sliku tržišta rada u tranzicijskim zemljama. Osim što su se promenili uveti rada, promenila su se i očekivanja zaposlenika o razmeni između njega i poslodavca, a koja su opisana psihološkim ugovorom zaposlenika. U našoj smo studiji pretpostavili da će generacije zaposlenika odraslih u različitim političko-ekonomskim sistemima imati različita očekivanja u pogledu obaveza poslodavca i sopstvenih obaveza u međusobnoj razmeni. Takođe, pretpostavili smo da će zaposlenici različitih generacija različito reagovati na kršenje tih očekivanja. Tačnije, istražili smo generacijske razlike u sadržaju psihološkog ugovora i reakcija na prekršaj psihološkog ugovora na jednom velikom i heterogenom uzorku hrvatskih zaposlenika. Sakupili smo podatke na uzorku od 432 učesnika i uporedili sadržaj psihološkog ugovora između Generacije Y (rođeni između 1981. i 1993. godine) i generacije starijih zaposlenika (rođeni između 1946. i 1980. godine). Sadržaj psihološkog ugovora promatrali smo kroz 6 dimenzija obaveza poslodavca i dimenzije obaveza zaposlenika. Dimenzije percipiranih obaveza poslodavca činili su sadržaj posla, razvoj karijere, socijalna atmosfera, balans između privatnog života i posla, organizaciona politika, i nagrade, a dimenzije percipiranih obaveza zaposlenika ponašanja vezana uz osnovne radne zadatke i ostala ponašanja na poslu. Rezultati analiza kovarijanci u kojima smo uspoređivali dvije generacijske skupine zaposlenika, uz istovremenu kontrolu razlika među uzorcima u spolu, obrazovanju, sektoru i veličini organizacije, su pokazali da zaposlenici Generacije Y očekuju više od svojih poslodavaca što se tiče razvoja karijere, balansa između privatnog života i posla te socijalne atmosfere. Istovremeno, starija generacija je percipirala više obaveza poslodavca vezanih za organizacionu politiku i više sopstvenih obaveza vezanih uz osnovne radne zadatke. Iako se pokazalo da se ove dve generacije razlikuju u sadržaju psihološkog ugovora, radilo se o malim veličinama efekata. Testirali smo i moderacioni efekat starosti na odnos između prekršaja psihološkog ugovora i stavova prema poslu (zadovoljstvo poslom, organizaciona lojalnost i namera odlaska iz organizacije) koristeći multiple hijerarhijske regresione analize. Moderacioni efekat je dobijen samo za odnos između prekršaja psihološkog ugovora i namere odlaska iz organizacije: mlađi zaposlenici su reagovali na prekršaj snažnijom namerom davanja otkaza nego stariji zaposlenici.

Ključne reči


psihološki ugovor, generacijske razlike, prekršaj psihološkog ugovora, stavovi prema poslu

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19090/pp.2016.4.395-412

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