ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH FRAMEWORK: PREDICTING EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Boris Popov, Sara Raković, Dragana Jelić

Abstract


The organisational health framework represents a turning point in the field of occupational stress research because it focuses simultaneously on both individual indicators of stress and well-being, and the indicators of organisational performance. The main aim of this study was to test whether positive and negative experiences at work can predict some of the organisational health indicators, such as burnout, work engagement, organisational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions. A total number of 477 employees (average age 39 years), permanently employed in 18 companies in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, filled in the following questionnaires: the Positive and Negative Experiences Scale (PNWES), the Work Burnout Scale (WB), the Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Serbian Affect Inventory (SIAB-PANAS), the shortened Oragnisational Commitment Scale (OCS), as well as the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS), and the Turnover Intentions scale (NNO). Results of the structural equations modelling showed that hypothetical model had good fit indices and that relationships between variables were in the expected direction. It was demonstrated that positive work experiences increased directly work engagement and, indirectly, organisational citizenship behaviour. On the other hand, negative work experiences were found to increase burnout, and indirectly, turnover intentions. Commitment was proved to be the central mediator in the model. The theoretical and practical implications of the organisational health framework were discussed.


Keywords


organisational health framework, work burnout, work engagement, employee well-being, organisational performance

Full Text:

PDF (Srpski)

References


Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Ashill, N. J. (2010). Service worker burnout and turnover intentions: Roles of person-job fit, servant leadership, and customer orientation. Services Marketing Quarterly, 32(1), 17–31. doi:10.1080/15332969.2011.533091

Bakker, A. B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265–269. doi:10.1177/0963721411414534

Bakker, A. B., & Bal, M. P. (2010). Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 189–206. doi:10.1348/096317909X402596

Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2010). Positive occupational health psychology. In S. Leka & J. Houdmont (Eds.), Occupational health psychology (pp. 194–224). John Wiley & Sons.

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(2), 147–154. doi:10.1002/job.515

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., de Boer, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Job demands and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(2), 341–356. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00030-1

Beehr, T. A., & Newman, J. E. (1998). Research on occupational stress: An unfinished enterprise. Personnel Psychology, 51, 835–844. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00741.x

Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.

Borritz, M., Bȕltmann, U., Rugulies, R., Christensen, K. B., Villadsen, E., & Kristensen, T. S. (2005). Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: Findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47, 1015–1025. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000175155.50789.98

Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S., & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89–136. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01203.x

Cotton, P., & Hart, P. M. (2003). Occupational wellbeing and performance: A review of organisational health research. Australian Psychologist, 38(2), 118–127. doi:10.1080/00050060310001707117

Edwards, J. R. (1992). A cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 17, 238–274. doi:10.5465/AMR.1992.4279536

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43(6), 495–513. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2005.11.001

Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work & Stress, 22(3), 224–241. doi:10.1080/02678370802379432

Hart, P. M. (1994). Teacher quality of work life: Integrating work experiences, psychological distress and morale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67(2), 109–132. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00555.x

Hart, P. M. (1999). Predicting employee life satisfaction: A coherent model of personality, work, and non-work experiences, and domain satisfactions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 564–584. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.564

Hart, P. M., & Cooper, C. L. (2001). Occupational stress: Toward a more integrated framework. In N. R. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial, Work & Organizational Psychology: Volume 2: Organizational Psychology (pp. 93–114). SAGE.

Hart, P. M., & Cotton, P. (2003). Conventional wisdom is often misleading: Police stress within an organisational health framework. In M. F. Dollard, A. H. Winefiled, & H. R. Winefield (Eds.), Occupational Stress in the Service Professions (pp. 103–141). CRC Press.

Hart, S. E. (2005). Hospital ethical climates and registered nurses’ turnover intentions. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(2), 173–177. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00030.x

Hayduk, L. A., & Littvay, L. (2012). Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(1), 159. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-159

Houkes, I., Janssen, P. P. M., de Jonge, J., & Nijhuis, F. J. N. (2001). Specific relationships between work characteristics and intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intention: A multi-sample analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), 1–23. doi:10.1080/13594320042000007

Janssen, P. P. M., De Jonge, J., & Bakker, A. B. (1999). Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intentions: a study among nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(6), 1360–1369. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01022.x

Kalaj, V., Jelić, D., Berat, N. i Popov, B. (2011). Šta predviđa pozitivne, a šta negativne indikatore stresnog odgovora kod zaposlenih? Test modela organizacijskog zdravlja. Primenjena Psihologija, 4, 279–294.

Kline, R. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

Kristensen, T. S., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K. B. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work & Stress, 19(3), 192–207. doi:10.1080/02678370500297720

Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Nurse turnover: The mediating role of burnout. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 331–339. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.01004.x

Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57–72. doi:10.5465/AME.2002.6640181

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.

Matteson, M. T., & Ivancevich, J. M. (1979). Organizational stressors and heart disease: A research model. Academy of Management Review, 4, 347–357. doi:10.5465/AMR.1979.4289092

Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(1), 149–171. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2006.09.002

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89. doi:10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z

Meyer, J. P., & Maltin, E. R. (2010). Employee commitment and well-being: A critical review, theoretical framework and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 323–337. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.04.007

Mihić, L., Novović, Z., Čolović, P., & Smederevac, S. (2014). Serbian adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Its facets and second-order structure. Psihologija, 47, 393–414.

Motowidlo, S. J., & Van Scotter, J. R. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 475–480. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.475

Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71–94. doi:10.1037/a0021484

Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2003). Eustress: An elusive construct, an engaging pursuit. In P. L. Perrewe, D. C. Ganster (Eds), Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies. Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being (Volume 3, pp. 265–322). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S1479-3555%2803%2903007-5

Paré, G., & Tremblay, M. (2007). The influence of high-involvement human resources practices, procedural justice, organizational commitment, and citizenship behaviors on information technology professionals’ turnover intentions. Group & Organization Management, 32, 326–357. doi:10.1177/1059601106286875

Perryer, C., Jordan, C., Firns, I., & Travaglione, A. (2010). Predicting turnover intentions: The interactive effects of organizational commitment and perceived organizational support. Management Research Review, 33, 911–923. doi:10.1108/01409171011070323

Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 438–454. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513–563. doi:10.1177/014920630002600307

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Popov, B. (2009). Kratka skala za merenje namere za napuštanje organizacije (Neobjavljeni priručnik). Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.

Popov, B. (2013). Uslovi na radu i uverenja zaposlenih kao prediktori organizacijskog zdravlja (Neobjavljena doktorska disertacija). Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.

Popov, B., Miljanović, M., Stojaković, M. i Matanović, J. (2013). Izvori stresa na radu, distres i izgaranje: uloga strategija prevladavanja. Primenjena Psihologija, 6, 355–370.

Riketta, M. (2002). Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 257–266. doi:10.1002/job.141

Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217–1227. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1217

Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932–946. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.46.5.932

Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Work engagement. What do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14(1), 3–10.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315. doi:10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. In G. F. Bauer & O. Hämmig (Eds), Bridging Occupational, Organizational and Public Health (pp. 43–68). Springer Netherlands. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-5640-3_4

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire a cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701–716. doi:10.1177/0013164405282471

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893–917. doi:10.1002/job.595

Schwab, D. P., Heneman, H. G., & DeCotiis, T. A. (1975). Behaviorally anchored rating scales: A review of the literature. Personnel Psychology, 28, 549–562. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01392.x

Simmons, B. L., & Nelson, D. (2007). Eustress at work: Extending the holistic stress model. In D. Nelson & C. Cooper (Eds), Positive Organizational Behavior (pp. 40–53). London: SAGE.

Solinger, O. N., van Olffen, W., & Roe, R. A. (2008). Beyond the three-component model of organizational commitment. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 70–83. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.70

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics. Allyn and Bacon.

Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20, 316–334. doi:10.1080/02678370601065893

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183–200. doi:10.1348/096317908X285633

Zellars, K. L., Hochwarter, W. A., Perrewé, P. L., Hoffman, N., & Ford, E. W. (2004). Experiencing job burnout: The roles of positive and negative traits and states. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 887–911. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02576.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19090/pp.2017.1.81-101

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.